Principles of strategic management pdf


  • . Read chapter Chapter Two - Literature Review: TRB's Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Synthesis 59: Strategic Planning and Management in   pertinent managerial practices regarding the principles of: (i) coherence in Key words: Complexity theories, management direction, supply chain . The Eight Principles of Strategic Wealth Management are at the heart of what I do every day. This new edition covers the fundamentals of strategic analysis and planning, strategy formulation OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT Operations Managementis important, exciting, challenging, and everywhere your look! Important, because it’s concerned with creating all of the products and services upon which we depend. Designed for MBA candidates, business majors, and aspiring entrepreneurs, this comprehensive collection of textbooks covers management principles, from organizational behavior and business strategy to operations and production management. 5 Nature of Management 1. There are 14 Principles of Management described by Henri Fayol. These principles represent a combination of organizational systems and individual capabilities — the hardware and software of transformation. The distinction between strategic thinking, strategic management and strategic planning 45 STRATEGY IN ACTIONQuick strategic thinking in unfavourable circumstances45 STRATEGY IN ACTIONSony – the disruptive innovator 50 Principles for the successful use of strategy 61 Finding the right strategic mix of entrepreneurial creativity and basic principles of strategic management of business enterprises. Management Principles - Types Of Plans - Plans commit the various resources in an organization to specific outcomes for the fulfillment of future goals. 1. Managers down the line rough  development domains. Introduction 1. Strategic Management is all about identification and description of the strategies that managers can carry so as to achieve better performance and a competitive advantage for their organization. While the book focuses on the developments in Strategic Purchasing and Supply Management it might also provide a presentation of a coming generation of purchasing professionals. BRIEF HISTORICAL BACKGROUND As such, the concept of RBM is not really new. According to Henri Fayol in his book General and Industrial Management (1916), there are 14 'Principles of Management'. It is easy to get caught up in the day-to-day growth (or even survival) of a business and postpone strategic planning. 8 Oct 2018 PDF | The main purpose of this book is to be used for the higher The process of strategic management and its responsibility . Sector unit number: 15. 1. A great deal of research capital has been expended in the direction of firm-lev el strategic management, attempting to better understand Strategic Management in the P-O-L-C Framework. analysed strategic planning, management and leadership praxis in public sector, analysed strategic planning, management . The challenges inherent in information management projects mean that new approaches need to be taken, if they are to succeed. These Links are gathered from Internet sources. Henri Fayol ‘s principles of management and research were published in the book ‘General and Industrial Management’ (1916). This process, called strategic planning or strategic management, includes the formulation of a strategic plan that integrates quality as a core component. The Principles of Management are the essential, underlying factors that form the foundations of successful management. ! A Framework for Strategic Innovation Now that we understand the principles of Lean thinking, we can look at how three of the main Lean methodologies—the Deming Cycle, Six Sigma, and Kanban—approach project management. Strategic vi | Fraud Risk Management Guide | COSO/ACFE coso. 3. Guided learning hours: 30. ppt / . COSO Enterprise Risk Management Framework COSO was first introduced in 1992 as an internal controls framework. Operations & Process Management: Principles & Practice for Strategic Impact [Nigel Slack, Alistair Jones] on Amazon. -- USAF Strategic Master Plan AFIMSC will provide capabilities in the most effective/efficient manner to drive down life cycle cost to acquire, operate, sustain, protect, and recover AF installations through CIP. STRATEGIC Surprisingly, here there is ready agreement. Planning is an important aspect of strategic thinking and management. control, enterprise risk management, and fraud deterrence designed to Sets out core definitions, components, and principles for all levels of management  Keywords: Strategic Management in Health, Mission-Vision Determination, Strategy. The foundation for the ten principles lies This textbook is intended for the Principles of Management course. Why isn't . A good strategic management process will help any organization to improve and to gain more strategic actions, and ensuring that strategic plans are implemented as intended. PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENT lecture notes 1. Strategic Marketing Management: Segmentation. Corporations began This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project Companies that are successful at global talent management subscribe to six key principles. com Abstract The achievement of academic research involves a series of steps and activities that must be man- PDF | The purpose of this chapter is to outline the development of the idea of "stakeholder management" as it has come to be applied in strategic management. Many different types of plans are adopted by man Homework Help in Management from CliffsNotes! Need help with your business and management homework and tests? These articles can enhance your knowledge of mana While agencies' approaches to workforce planning will vary, GAO identified five key principles that strategic workforce planning should address irrespective of the context in which the planning is done: (1) involve top management, employees, and other stakeholders in developing, communicating, and implementing the strategic workforce plan, (2 they provide the strongest linkage to the strategic goals of an organization, customer satisfaction and economic contributions. Visualize the battlefield in the war for talent. Henri Fayol explored this comprehensively and, as a result, he synthesized the 14 principles of management. The Strategic Business and Operations Framework is a philosophy and decision-making model for how Georgia Tech will work towards achieving the goals of the institute and “ relentlessly pursue institutional effectiveness” (Strategic Plan - Goal 5). [5] The difference between strategic management and strategic planning The various principles of management propounded by Henri Fayol were the results of many years of practice and formal training. 3 STRATEGIC PLANNING What is strategic planning? Strategic planning is a disciplined process for making key decisions and agreeing on actions that will shape and guide what an organisation is, what it does, and why it does it. After placing management in context, the authors deal with the knowledge, skills and dispositions required of managers to perform the management functions of planning, organising, leading and controlling in a volatile business world. in all steps of strategic management in the public sector and all convey the importance of negotiation and bargaining. The large response to our call for papers is indicative of the scholarly interest in Taylor, his work, and its relevance to management Management Principles are the statements of fundamental truth based on logic which provides guidelines for managerial decision making and actions. In the past, HR is considered primarily as a support role. ) • Chapter 11—Updated information on financial issues with more What are the Top 3 strategic management theories/principles that have actually been used by companies? I am interested in identifying the strategic management principles/theories/models that have the strategic management (Venohr & Meyer, 2007). B ackground The concept of strategic planning can be traced back to the military arena as early as the Greek city-states in the fifth century BC. Essentially, therefore, management entails the acquisition of managerial competence, and effectiveness Strategic management involves the related concepts of strategic planning and strategic thinking. Strategic management accounting is a key component of the overall skills base of today's . Embed Difference between business policy and strategic management. 3. We begin by developing a brief history Management Principles: Management scientists and writers on organisations have developed certain management principles which may be regarded as general statements of organisational and management behaviour. There is no need of keeping all information on the ground that they may be useful in future. *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Now published in its Third Edition, Principles of Strategic Management by Tony Morden is a proven textbook that offers a comprehensive introduction to the study and practice of strategic management. com. It analyses how a company can best satisfy its customers and make a profit at it. The Principles of Scientific Management is a monograph published by Frederick Winslow Taylor. First let me say that project management is not my specialty and your knowledge of the subject may be superior to mine. Here is a varied selection of those statements. Therefore, strategic . 18 Oct 2015 of the importance of SWOT analysis in strategic management in public. We discussed “strategic planning,” which provides inputs into what we want to evaluate in our performance management system, in Chapter 2. At that time, organizations began to look at the overall management of business travel and its components (airfare, hotel bookings, rental cars, travel expenses, etc. pptx), PDF File (. Dynamic Nature of Principles Principles are a fundamental truth which establish cause and effect relationship of a function. Technological Process. A total amount of 28 different strategic planning methods were chosen and classified in our study. Utilize a system that allows you to put the ten above strategic principles into place and you will set your business up for capitalizing on the future. 4 SCOPE This seminar discusses the basic principles of management. Principles connected to strategic goals Defining strategic management, planning Outline Ł Why strategic management? ŁTasks of strategic management ŁStrategic management is an ongoing process ŁWho performs the tasks of strategy ŁBenefits of managing strategically STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT The art and science of formulating, implementing, and evaluating cross-functional decisions that Defining strategic management, planning Outline Ł Why strategic management? ŁTasks of strategic management ŁStrategic management is an ongoing process ŁWho performs the tasks of strategy ŁBenefits of managing strategically STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT The art and science of formulating, implementing, and evaluating cross-functional decisions that This book outlines the principles of strategic management – which are of immense importance in today’s complex business world - and will be useful to the students and practitioners of management. Management •The principles are for managers … not employees. These principles are usually stated in a form that identifies cause and effect relationships. Strategic-Management-Principles. 2. strategic sourcing methodology accenture Develop an overall sourcing strategy, of which strategic sourcing. Final Words 49. Clausewitz advocated six principles of strategic effectiveness: Rich Horwath helps managers develop the skills and expertise to create great strategy and fulfill  Facility managers may still be unsure how to initiate the SFP process and need to this white paper outlines the key principles of strategic facility planning and  Draft Great Artesian Basin Strategic Management Plan 2019 . A watershed management framework Strategic Human Resource Management: Defining the Field Graeme Salaman, John Storey and Jon Billsberry 1 The significance of Strategic Human Resource Management Strategic Human Resource Management (SHRM) has been, and remains, one of the most powerful and influential ideas to have emerged in the field of We proudly present the resulting E-book of this year’s project – Strategic Purchasing Principles and Current issues. 8 From this point of view, an integrated management unit, Values are the set of principles, rules and cultural aspects governing the HO and determining their institutional behavior. . • A key factor of successful project management is to see a project as a series of interrelated tasks – Most other courses focus on how to . Each one has been written to provide you with the practical skills you need to succeed as a management professional. The theory falls under the Administrative Management school of thought (as opposed to the Scientific Management school, led by Fredrick Taylor ). The Drivers Model process covers seven key principles for masterfully planning any activity. Principles for Public Management Practice: From Dichotomies to Interdependence MARTHA S. 5. It also discusses the way in which Information Assurance management relates to its environment. Practicing Strategic Management 51. Ten guiding principles of change management Success at large-scale transformation demands more than the best strategic and tactical plans, the traditional focus of senior executives and their advisers. The first of the principles of strategic planning is that strategic planning is a managerial accountability inherent to top management roles. (Note: We will create more of them for today‟s turbulent environment which requires “Organic” Management principles). Strategic management is the process through which managers undertake efforts to ensure long-term adaptation of their organization to its environment. Strategic management full notes 1. Key Words: consider strategic management principles, it will achieve its goal to be pioneer in municipality ye. That publication provided a basic introduction to the concepts of risk management that proved very popular as a resource for developing and implementing risk management processes in government organisations. org/articles/turningthetide/ turningthetide. Without strategic planning, however, a business will flounder. A good friend of mine learned of my plight and suggested that I read "Project Management Principles" on free-management-eBook s. cation/higher-education/doc/com499_en. 14 Suggested Readings current emphasis on “strategic risk management. 4018/978-1-59904-802-4. A public administrator must be ready to be a key player in this process and be able to anticipate issues in public discussion just as the manager of a private company has to deal emerging market forces. This is why strategy is so critical to the principles of management you are  Discuss traditional management strategies and their relevancy to modern management techniques. pdf (03. The Chairman of Wealth Strategist Network (an organisation that helps high net-worth families in managing their wealth), Stuart Lucas suggests eight principles of -term wealth effective long management that he developed based on his 25 years of experience in managing wealth. "Strategic management planning" is the comprehensive term used in the Act and in . As a result of this responsibility, inventory management is accountable for the physical and financial levels of Principles relating to risk management. org/docrep/016/i2697s / i2697s. Strategic management is a broader term than strategy and is a process that includes top management’s analysis of the environment in which the organization operates prior to formulat - ing a strategy, as well as the plan for implementation and control of the strategy. 1 2. The attitude of the managers has molded itself in such a fashion that they are doing, consciously or unconsciously, something new. IFMA, in its “Project Management Benchmarks Survey 2002,” defines the strategic facility plan: “A strategic facility plan (SFP) is defined as a two-to-five year facilities plan encompass- its values and principles. au/publications/20120418-LG-Reporting/20120418-LG-Reporting. 5 Other Types of Strategic formulation 22 4 Schools of Strategy 24 4. 1 Developments in strategic management Management has been defined by Smit & Cronje (1997) as The book is titled Corporate Social Responsibility: A Strategic Perspective and is published by Business Expert Press. The establishment of a network of crisis managers under the auspices of the OECD High-Level Risk BASIC PRINCIPLES OF MARKETING AND MANAGEMENT LESSON 1- Definition & Core concept, marketing tools, P’s- product, price, place and promotion LESSON 2- Market segmentation, targeting and positioning & analyzing the marketing environment LESSON 3- Study consumer behavior, need s and motivation, group dynamics, social BASIC PRINCIPLES OF MARKETING AND MANAGEMENT LESSON 1- Definition & Core concept, marketing tools, P’s- product, price, place and promotion LESSON 2- Market segmentation, targeting and positioning & analyzing the marketing environment LESSON 3- Study consumer behavior, need s and motivation, group dynamics, social The Principles of Public Administration Reform The leadership of public administration reform is established and the strategic Public administration reform Course Summary Business 101: Principles of Management has been evaluated and recommended for 3 semester hours and may be transferred to over 2,000 colleges and universities. For the better part of a decade, strategy has been a business buzzword. Principles of Management. pdf>. Mayenul Islam Associate Professor in Management School of Business Principles of Strategic Marketing Management. Let’s break down each one. We will now review definitions of Fayol‟s five management functions. ” (Formerly Chapter 8. 2. 2 The environment of the organisation 82 4. The Free Management Library presents a thorough guide to strategic and  Everyone employed in an organization is affected by management principles, . By attending this course, you will gain an understanding of the strategic management process including the use of tools for analysis, "Management is the organizational process that includes strategic planning, setting objectives, managing resources, deploying the human and financial assets needed to achieve objectives, and measuring results. Based on successful watershed management efforts like these across the country, this tutorial presents four core principles of watershed management: 1. Masud Mahmood Chittagong University Dr. fao. principles that guide the organization; these values are shared by Board and. Although the principles of strategic planning have been known for several decades, an understanding of their applicability to project management is rela-tively new. 15 The Global Management Accounting Principles were created for this era of business. Strategic planning is an organization's process of defining its strategy, or direction, and making Strategic planning became prominent in corporations during the 1960s and remains an important aspect of strategic management. Corporate recruiting is an interesting field. pdf), Text File (. Strategic management studies the firm as a whole—rather than as individual parts—and takes a long-range view of its prospects. What is Leadership? The definition of strategic leadership denotes “the leader’s ability to anticipate, envision, and maintain flexibility and to empower others to create strategic change as necessary” (Hitt, Ireland, & Hoskisson 2008: 375). The The Strategic Asset Management Framework (SAMF) is a guide for managing South Australian government buildings and establishes a flexible and non-prescriptive guidance to agencies to assist in the appropriate management of their building asset portfolios. There are many different ways of applying these quality management principles. The following 10 principles can help unlock the potential strategic leadership in your enterprise. Case Study The IKEA   Strategic Management. The next steps are to complete the planning work, publish, deploy, can have on management skills • Be knowledgeable of the varying available self-development methods • Understand strategic planning and its use • Understand how project management tenets can be applied to initiation of new products and services • Know how to implement a project and evaluate the process These first concepts, also called principles of management are the underlying factors for successful management. Strategic Management for Senior Leaders: A Handbook for Implementation vision, mission, guiding principles, strategic goals, strategies, and objec- tives. • Distinguish between supply chain management and value chain management, although the terms are sometimes used interchangeably Appendix A: Summary of Major Principles or Guides for the Managerial Functions of Planning, Organizing, Leading, and Controlling Appendix B: Management Excellence Survey Updated on 18 May 2019, 8 March 2015 Saylor Academy Open Textbooks We’re about so much more than just these textbooks. pdf. Strategic cost management approaches require that supply chain team work together to identify process improvement that reduces costs across the supply chain. Management Science Notes Pdf – MS Pdf Notes Entrepreneurship and organization, Departmentation and Decentralisation, Types of organization structures -Line organization, Line and staff organization, functional organization. cdc. The five management functions of planning,organizing,con-trolling, directing, and staffing are brought to life and con-nected by decision making, which is itself a subset of the essential process for managers that is known as problem solv-Introduction to Management and Leadership Concepts, Principles, and Practices Strategic management principles include a wide range of policies, guidelines and best practices to strategic management. Why not download one now for your PC, Mac, laptop, tablet, Kindle, eBook reader or Smartphone. Customer-facing activities can be among the worst offenders. 4. i The mission statement of the organisation 79 4. These principles have been developed through the ongoing exchange of ideas between supervisors and industry since 2003. Creating the Future: Strategic Planning for Schools 3:. Management Principles CORPORATE LEARNING COURSE “TEAM BUILDING” BLOCK SEMINAR 3. Even if you do nothing else, you have thus created a single market segment around which your sales and marketing efforts are then based. 2015). To cite this article: O Kluchnikova and O  Strategic management is basically needed for every organization and it offers several Hence a corporation organized under the basic principles of strategic. 13 Self Assessment Questions 1. Strategic management principles provide mission statements that are unique and tailor-made for the organization in question. They all follow a disciplined approach to project management, stress optimization of the value stream, and map the value stream in its current state. The purpose of this article is to present the principles of strategic planning methods classification and application. A variety of analytical . 6 Is Strategic Planning Only for Top Management? 1/48. sound practices framework with specific principles for the management of operational risk that are consistent with sound industry practice. While financial institutions have faced difficulties over the years for a multitude of reasons, the major cause of serious banking problems continues to be directly related to lax credit standards for borrowers and counterparties, poor portfolio risk management, or a lack This is the table of contents for the book Management Principles (v. (6) Management Training, Education and Research: The advantages of the principles of management encourage the researchers to bring in more improvement in them. 9 May 2014 areas: educational management, quality management and strategic management. Examples of how the functions are applied in practice are cited throughout the book. 3 The tactical goals 84 This chapter covers the basic principles of Information Security. from the rest of the organization. question whether concepts of strategy and strategic management are understood by business managers, especially the younger, the newly graduated in management. of this paper is to identify and discuss some basic principles of strategy-making in a modern . More than 10 years pass and this article is considered the “classic” article and got republished in 2010, and again in 2013. txt) or view presentation slides online. The Impact of Public Relations Principles in the Strategic. pdf? expires=  The National Protected Area Strategic Management Plan (NPASMP) 2017-2031 is . Strategic planning is part of quality management . Strategic management is not a simple process; it is complex in nature. Strategic planning is central to top management stewardship of the organization entrusted to them. The lecture notes section includes the files associated with each lecture. principle, which is a circular or reciprocal response such as feedback Available at: www. Also read business articles, management tips and jargon. Here are six critical decisions CEOs must make to address the strategic challenge posed by the digital revolution. Share this article with other Students of MBA who are searching for MBA 3rd Sem Notes & Books. So, for strategists, strategic management is the desired approach for general management. As Vinay Couto, Deniz Caglar, and John Plansky explain in Fit for Growth: A Guide to Strategic Cost Cutting, Restructuring, and Renewal (Wiley, 2017), effective cost management depends on the ability to ruthlessly cut the investments that don’t drive value. Questions on the exam require you to demonstrate knowledge of management functions and techniques, and ability to associate the meaning of specific terminology with important management PRINCIPLES OF BUSINESS MANAGEMENT f A 4. The report analyses the corporate governance framework and practices relating to corporate risk management, in the private sector and in state-owned enterprises (SOEs). Strategic Management Principles. Strategic Management Principles: 10. 4 The experience of management 82 4. Digitization is rewriting the rules of competition, with incumbent companies most at risk of being left behind. Although the Harvard Policy Model, a planning methodology Basic Marketing Principles Author: Mickey Smith, RPh, PhD Director, Center for Pharmaceutical Marketing and Management University of Mississippi Figure 2 The Global Management Accounting Principles 5 Figure 3 The Global Management Accounting Principles (detailed) 9 Figure 4 The CGMA Competency Framework 13 Figure 5 The changing role of management accountants 14 Figure 6 Management accounting linking strategy to the business model 15 Box 1 Relationships, resources and risks 16 Bible Principles of MANAGEMENT . Fayol's principles are listed below: Division of Work – When employees are specialized, output can increase because they become increasingly skilled and efficient. 18 Oct 2000 Strategic Management Journal The Satisficing Principle in Capability Learning model for this question, based on the satisficing principle. 020302. Accessed  In the developed world, the focus is on environmental management, while in processes of a business if it is to follow sustainable development principles. Governance and Management Principles and Norms DEFINITIONS 12. Without principles of management there would be a lot of wastage of resources. Strategic change is defined as “changes in the content of a firm's strategy as defined by its scope, resource deployments, competitive advantages, and synergy" [Hofer and Schendel 1978]. Professor & Ex. com/BalancedScorecardSurvivalPathForPublicSector. This article has outlined ten key principles of effective information management. You may have already adopted some of these tenets, and think that’s enough. It requires an intimate understanding of the human side, as well — the company’s culture, values, people, and behaviors principles of management help to coordinate the material and human resources in order to achieve the desired goals or common objectives. 7 Levels of Management 1. Share MGT417: Principles of Strategic Management. Read on. A strategy gives direction to diverse activities, even though the STRATEGIC PRINCIPLES FOR SECURING IOT The principles set forth below are designed to improve security of IoT across the full range of design, manufacturing, and deployment activities. Here are some of the most important principles of human resource management. ch002: Building on the understanding of the theories and models of firms, this chapter reviews the basic principles of strategic management of business enterprises. No one Download a PDF. Our free management eBooks cover everything from accounting principles to business strategy. Keywords: strategic management, sustainable . Management: Council will apply sound financial management principles and . between strategic management theory and competitive advantage from the . In 2001 Treasury produced “Management of Risk – A Strategic Overview” which rapidly became known as the Orange Book. • Lean supply chain management represents a new way of thinking about supplier networks • Lean principles require cooperative supplier relationships while balancing cooperation and competition • Cooperation involves a spectrum of collaborative relationships & coordination mechanisms • Supplier partnerships & strategic alliances Strategic Planning and Implementation for Islamic Organizations 5 WHAT IS STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT? should use such project management techniques as PERT(Program Evaluation Review Technique). The methodology used in this research is based on the taxonomy methods and particularly Ward's method. 31. Chapter 16: Strategic Human Resource Management. Be a program, but principles of project management apply to most projects. gov. Contents. Strategic — All business school teachings have some orientation toward performance and strategy and are concerned with making choices that lead to high performance. These focus on the organisational and cultural changes required to drive forward improvements. 61. Dean School of Business Bangladesh Open University Editors Professor Dr. Exciting, because it’s at the centre of so many of the changes affecting the world of business. "Strategic management" is A) An evolution of the strategic planning term that refers to a new approach to management which privileges a strategic approach to enterprise problem solving. time frame, without some form of strategic planning for project management. This book is written for managers interested in strategic data science and data scientists interested in how to improve their contribution to their organisation. Today, as more companies recognize the benefits that project man- Exam Strategic Management: Principles and Practice THEORETICAL PART (10 points) Dear colleagues, Thank you so much for your investment in the Strategic Management course. Here at AskVenkat we are providing MBA books Links for Free. Some program teams Strategic management is not about predicting the future, but about preparing for it and knowing what exact steps the company will have to take to implement its strategic plan and achieve a competitive advantage. This Book was one of the important subject and also an important book for MBA Students. Eight Principles of Strategic Wealth Management – Stuart E. Understand the roles of pay structure and pay for performance. a) field-level managers This Special Edition of the Journal of Business and Management was organized to celebrate the 100th anniversary of the publication of Frederick Winslow Taylor’s The Principles of Scientific Management. 27 Apr 1999 accommodated within the same strategic management regime? sufficient for an efficient strategic management framework. 11 Significance of Management 1. Strategic management process is a tool that has been successfully used by the ailing corporate A strategic human capital management plan will mean the difference between failure and success for your company. 0 MB) which outlines the Vision, Principles,  Download PDF The organizational level at which the strategic planning process is relevant depends on . Strategic management is a concept that, although or iginally crafted for individual competitive firms, is finding its place into more broadly defined organizations within agriculture. Principles of Management by Carpenter, Bauer and Erdogan teaches management principles to tomorrow’s business leaders by weaving three threads through every chapter: strategy, entrepreneurship and active leadership. the ability to take a general management perspective in analyzing a particular company, 4. -- AFIMSC PAD 14-04 “The core principles behind BBP 3. Introduction –definition 'Structure' is the allocation and control of   PDF | The article presents the research into and the development proposals for, Rationalization of Strategic Management Principles as a Tool to Improve a  Strategic Management: The theory and practice of strategy in (business) organizations. Behaving Ethically 47. period, disaster management places heavy emphasis on: (choose the best answer) a) advance planning b) strategic planning c) organizational planning d) field management planning e) forward planning 3. page of the text, and compare this to the version number of the latest PDF widening the perspectives of functional managers, and teaching financial specialists the principles of how 1. Strategic planning is analytical in nature and refers to formalized procedures to produce the data and analyses used as inputs for strategic thinking, which synthesizes the data resulting in the strategy. Closing Case: Google's Mission, Ethical Principles, and Involvement in China 52. tr_21. management cases. The principles of Strategic marketing deals with the ‘big picture’ marketing planning. , Understanding Applied Strategic Planning: A Manager's Guide). Justification: The purpose for which records are maintained should be justifiable. PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENT (2E) and PRINCIPLES OF STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT (3E) are established textbooks for use on undergraduate, MBA, conversion Masters, and other postgraduate or professional courses in business, management, business administration, entrepreneurship, technology, and public sector management. Depending on the type and class of the project, this management activity can be very complex. Wikimedia Movement Strategic Plan (PDF). Chapter 1 provides an overview of strategic management. LITERATURE REVIEW Strategic management is the need of organization and also the ongoing debate in literature. Strategic Management I » Principles of Organization Design (PDF 1 - 3. Strategic control is typically the domain of top-level managers who must Strategic sourcing methodology pdf Evaluation. 1 Governance concerns the structures, functions, processes, and organizational traditions that have been put in place within the con-text of a program’s authorizing environment “to ensure that the [pro-gram] is run in such a way that it achieves its objectives in an effective Strategic cost management requires that purchasing and logistics system should adopt a series of new initiatives that can deliver results of the bottom line. asu. 7 Key Marketing Principles Here are 7 Key Principles to Answer Questions like “How Do I Get More Customers?” and “What Can I Do to Grow My Business?” Implement these 7 Key Principles into a working system in your business to generate more leads, referrals, and sales. pdf - Free download as PDF File (. To keep from floundering, bear in mind the four main principles of strategic planning. For instance, the underlying principles of strategy were discussed by Sun Tzu, . A WAY TO SUCCESSFUL AND STRATEGIC CONTRACT MANAGEMENT KRISTIAN JAAKKOLA [EFECTE CORP. A practical, integrative model of the strategic-management process is introduced. Rethinking the future: business, principles, competition, control, leadership,. As a result, most individuals in recruiting tend to make it up as they go rather than follow a more defined set of rules or principles. Strategic management textbooks focus on anything from strategic planning to strategic marketing. Principle 4: There is a clear debt management strategy in place and implemented so that the country's . Values : The principles or belief system that guides an organization's members as they. Management is a broad business discipline, and the Principles of Management course covers many management areas such as human resource management and strategic management, as well behavioral areas such as motivation. Based on practical evidences, management has framed certain principles, but these five key principles that strategic workforce planning should address irrespective of the context in which the planning is done: • Involve top management, employees, and other stakeholders in developing, communicating, and implementing the strategic workforce plan. efore coming to grips with the term “strategic planning,” it is best to examine each of those terms separately. We also discussed the major method of identifying performance requirements in a particular job when we went Here you can download the free lecture Notes of Management Science Pdf Notes – MS Notes Pdf materials with multiple file links to download. 2 The strategic goals 83 4. 7 the importance of adequate risk management. 4 Management Functions/ the Process of Management 1. This eBook is in PDF format for you all to download and contains all key topics in easy to understand language and concise manner. Watersheds are natural systems that we can work with. 15 Mar 2017 This book outlines the principles of strategic management – which are of immense importance in today's complex business world - and will be  Principles for the successful use of strategy. The principles of strategic management of a large business organization with diversified interests differ from those of the smaller business houses. 65. It is always changing. By working on a strategic plan together a team can: The aim of this research paper is to study about the Art of Strategic Management and its role in the success of Corporate Sector. Widespread adoption of these strategic principles and the associated suggested practices would dramatically improve the security posture of IoT. Management also includes recording and storing facts and information for later use or for others within the organization. Level: 6. Introduction. Abdul Awal Khan Ex. the strategic facility planning process is the strategic facility plan. 8 Managerial Skills 1. ” Strategic risk management is focused on the most consequential and significant risks to shareholder value—clearly an area deserving the time and attention of executive management and the board of directors. Business Seminar a description of how, in principle, Top Management intends to meet a  5 Feb 2014 http://www. This international text blends established theory and current practice to provide comprehensive strategic Bromwich has given the following definition of strategic management accounting: “provi­sion and analysis of financial information on the firm’s product markets and competitors’ costs and cost structures and the monitoring of the enterprise’s strategies and those of its competitors in these markets over a number of periods. FELDMAN* AND ANNE M. Fayol's 14 Principles of Management. A Practical Guide For Procurement Planning And Management Of Strategic Public Health Supplies 5 Acknowledgements Our thanks to Dr. 1 Introduction - Definition - there are three ‘schools’ of strategy 24 Designed for high-achieving graduates across all disciplines London Business School’s Masters in Management provides specific and tangible foundations for a successful career in usiness. Page 4. Contract management is becoming an integral part of project management, and business in general. Management of the Police  Strategic management is adaptive and keeps an organization relevant. Total Quality Management (TQM) is an approach to success through continuous improvement. The Changing Role of Strategic Human Resource Management in Principles of Management; Strategic Meetings Management was born from the practice of corporate travel management, which began to take shape in the late 1970’s. org The guide’s executive summary provides a high-level overview intended for the board of directors and senior management and is designed to explain the benefits of establishing strong anti-fraud policies and controls. lt/25/87. read our summary of the draft Plan 2018 PDF (2. 12 Summary 1. Finding the right strategic mix of entrepreneurial creativity and administrative expertise. Determination compatible with the principles of strategic management. For example, if one of the goals of Strategic HRM is ‘a more flexible deployment of personnel’, the various HRM instruments must aim at that goal. Management accounting linking strategy to the business model. Choose the appropriate letter from the following list to fill in the blanks in the sentence below. 6 Management Vs. Written by best-selling authors in their field, the fifth edition of Operations and Process Management inspires a critical and applied mastery of the core principles and process which are fundamental to successfully managing business Principles of Total Quality Management (TQM) July 22, 2013 Patrick Reynolds Total Quality Management (TQM) is a management approach focusing on the improvement of quality and performance in all functions, departments, and processes across the company to provide quality services which exceed customer expectations. 3 INTER-DISCIPLINARY NATURE OF MANAGEMENT Management has assumed inter-disciplinary dimension since it borrows ideas from various fields such as Economics, Law, Sociology, Psychology, Anthropology and Accounting. This could result in aiming for flexible people when Principles of Strategic Data Science describes a framework to create value from data to help organisations meeting their objectives. Solid Waste Management Strategy Guiding Principles and Strategic Options By MANAGEMENT RESOURCES FOR GOOD GOVERNANCE With technical assistance from INTERMEDIATE TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT GROUP for Sri Jayawardenapura Kotte Municipal Council UN-Habitat Basic Urban Services Initiative International Water & Sanitation Centre (IRC) March 2005 In summary, I recommend that any organization striving to be “best-in-class” review the following “best-in-class practices” checklist and assess their organizations against seven fundamental strategic account management guiding principles: Are our strategic account management “best-in-class practices” embedded (institutionalized strong in Strategy, I founded one group on Strategic Management with my Strategic planning is recognized to be vital to the effective Management of all. in leading the strategic management process. ). STRATEGIC FRAMEWORK OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION REFORM . I am sharing these awesome lecture notes and summarized eBook on Principles of Management for all students pursuing MBA and PGDM. Module 1: Introduction to Management Why It Matters: Introduction to Management Environments and Strategic Management Why It Matters Principles of Records Management. txt) or read online for free. responsibilities), and the principles/values under which it operates. 13189/ujm. ABSTRACT Contracts and partnerships are an essential part of today’s high speed, multilateral business culture – both in the public and private sector. Tool to Improve Quality of Construction. pdf! the seven principles that underpin best practice management of pest animals. Take charge and do it early. It introduces some specific terminology together with its meaning and definitions and considers the use of such terminology across the field of Information Assurance management. Management Concepts & Business Ethics 6 2. The main purpose of the book is to detail the core, defining principles of strategic CSR that differentiate it from related concepts, such as CSR, sustainability, and business ethics. There are no books entitled The Theory of Recruiting or Principles of Strategic Recruiting. The board of a large European insurer was pressing management for answers The Strategic Management Principles short course covers basic strategic management principles, skills, and tools and is aimed at middle-management and business owners who require knowledge of strategic management. MBA 1301 Principles of Management Course Development Team Writers Professor Dr. a single complex task, such as developing a use-case or designing a good human-computer interface Principles of Health Care Management “Strategic Dismissal. I ac As developing principles on risk management is one of the Forum’s objectives, these five areas could feed into the development of principles on crisis management. Total quality management (TQM) is achieved and becomes part of the overall organizational culture when the five principles - produce quality work the first time, focus on the customer, have a Download Strategic Management: Principles & Practice PDF Hallo guys Welcome to our web In this modern age all online, right as well as the book Download Strategic Management: Principles & Practice PDF You can just book Strategic Management: Principles & Practice PDF Online in your spare time and whenever you want On our website we provide this Strategic Management: Principles & Practice PDF University of Portsmouth | Information Management Strategic Principles November 2015 | 6 of 8 Principles Principle 1 – Information is an asset With a few, limited exceptions the University’s information remains the property of the University. •Leading and supervising others is the objective. Important relationships between business ethics and strategic management are discussed. Accounting Pdf provides unlimited PDF books, notes & guides of Financial, cost and management accounting, ACCA, CFA, CIMA, CPA, CMA, FRM and many more . Strategic management involves setting objectives, analyzing the competitive environment The Drivers Model is Leadership Strategies’ methodology for strategic planning and the ultimate tool for masterful planning. perform. 8. In simple form strategic change is away of changing the objectives and vision of the company in order to obtain greater success. a. Strategic planning and strategy creation Strategic planning is not to create a strategy but to programme a strategy already created!! • strategic planning is essentially analytical in nature, based on decomposition, while • strategy creation is a process of synthesis Henry Mintzberg; The Rise and Fall of Strategic Planning: Reconceiving the Strategic planning and strategy creation Strategic planning is not to create a strategy but to programme a strategy already created!! • strategic planning is essentially analytical in nature, based on decomposition, while • strategy creation is a process of synthesis Henry Mintzberg; The Rise and Fall of Strategic Planning: Reconceiving the Strategic Management - An Introduction. Since that time, new risk management standards have been published, including the international standard, ISO 31000 ‘Risk management – Principles and guidelines’. This is a traditional approach to management using the leading, planning, organizing, and controlling approach. We Provide the MBA Strategic Management lecture Notes Pdf – Download MBA 3rd Sem Study Materials & Books. management, monitoring, principles, strategic approach, vertebrate pest management, whole-of- . Planning objectives for a 12-month period, and to design strategies and programs to meet them. Join Mike Figliuolo for an in-depth discussion in this video Understanding the principles of strategic planning, part of Strategic Planning Foundations 1 Strategic Principles on Human Resources Management Strategic HRM roughly defines the focus of the operational HRM policy and instruments. This laid out Taylor's views on principles of scientific management, or industrial era organization and decision theory. The seven principles are summarized below. This part of your job is crucial as it assess the individual investments of our students. buy as a PDF or create Conaty GE Professor of Strategic HR at The major responsibility of inventory management is the management of materials and materials systems throughout the defined acquisition and supply chain from procurement to consumptionpoint. Strategic and systematic approach: A critical part of the management of quality is the strategic and systematic approach to achieving an organization’s vision, mission, and goals. The principles of management make optimum utilization of natural resources possible. Students: We have almost 100 free, full-length certificate courses ready for you to take right now. This organization decided to start an effort to reinforce its governance and management model, starting with strategic planning. The nature 1. Strategic management with the use of these principles leads to better results, faster development and strong market position. The tabi` aspect of a business cannot be ignored, even when it runs under an Islamic label, for both Muslims and non-Muslims are expected to obey it. ) Understand the nature of SHRM (Strategic Human Resource Management) One thing is clear. In a nutshell, project management is the discipline of planning, organizing, securing, managing, leading, and controlling resources to achieve specific goals. Concepts of organizational culture and change management are also explored briefly. Understand the scope and changing role of strategic human resource management (SHRM) in principles of management. i. mustaro@mackenzie. The following Guiding Principles will be used in the future management of  Total Quality Management uses strategy, data and communication channels to integrate the required quality principles into the organization's activities and  Keywords: organizational strategy, principles and strategies of sustainable sustainable management principles into the organization strategy that results in a lim- www. 20 Mar 2019 Principles of Management is designed to meet the scope and sequence areas such as human resource management and strategic management, as well behavioral areas such as motivation. OCR unit number: 14. Exampl Ve: aldiation/sotwf are testing, inspection, peer reviews. performance management that we already covered in past chapters and will cover in future chapters. profession and will 1 define what is strategic sourcing, 2 provide a step by. IBM Management Principles & Practices For nearly 90 years now, IBM chairmen have defined and communicated the principles by which IBMers should manage the business, conduct themselves, direct their activities, guide their employees, and work with each other, their customers and their communities. 3 The values of management 82 4. 2 A hierarchy of goals 82 4. Only through in-depth understanding and diligent ap - plication of these principles will business executives be able to make strategic choices and Principles of Strategic Management (Innovative Business Textbooks) [Tony Morden] on Amazon. If vision and mission are the heart and soul of planning (in the P-O-L-C framework), then strategy, particularly strategy formulation, would be the brain. Attributes for strategic risk management contained in the 2008 announcement by Strategic management is a deliberative process that looks forward, not backward; unfortunately, many companies have a reactive, ad-hoc approach to dealing with strategic issues. Md. First, the basic principles of business strategy are explained. In other words, strategic management can be seen as a combination Can COBIT 5 principles and enablers be applied to support strategic planning exercises? Two years ago in Mexico City, work was underway at an organization that offers managed print services and document solutions. external relations of the company, strategy and leadership concerns; and, on Fund for Food and Agriculture (FAO) (http://www. It becomes the definition of the company, the declaration of its corporate identity. Paula Andrea Diaz Serna, Cooperative of Hospitals, Antioquia, Colombia, PAHO/ WHO Collaborating Center in Supply Systems for Essential Medicines, for the important contribution made in the preparation of this Guide. STRATEGIC MANAGEMENTUNIT- I STRATEGY AND PROCESS 9Conceptual framework for strategic management, the Concept of Strategy and theStrategy Formation Process – Stakeholders in business – Vision, Mission and Purpose– Business definition, Objectives and Goals - Corporate Governance and Socialresponsibility-case study. Thus, management refers to the development of bureaucracy that derives its importance from the need for strategic planning, co-ordination, directing and controlling of large and complex decision-making process. The Principles of Management examination covers material that is usually taught in an introductory course in the essentials of management and organization. qpr. 07. Quality Assurance (QA) A part of quality management focused on providing confidence that quality requirements will be fulfilled’ At that time, Supply Chain Management (SCM) was a pretty new term so this article did the excellent job to explain important supply chain management principles in one shot. 1 The mission statement 82 4. 1). 0 is getting value for dollars Strategic planning assumes that certain aspects of the future can be created or influenced by the organization. To this end, we emphasize his contributions in three broad Project Management Principles Applied in Academic Research Projects Pollyana Notargiacomo Mustaro & Rogério Rossi Mackenzie Presbyterian University, São Paulo, SP, Brazil pollyana. Every marketer performs segmentation in the most basic respect of creating a picture of an "ideal customer". br rossirogerio@hotmail. org/docserver/download/5kml60zwdr7h. The Basis of Strategy: Structure. hear. pdf. Strategic Marketing Management: Building a Foundation for Your Future 4 • Customer characteristics and purchasing hot buttons provide the information needed to decide whether the firm can and should attempt to gain or maintain a sustainable competitive advantage for marketing to a particular market segment (Lehmann and Winer 1994). Basic activities and terms in strategic management are defined. that apply good management principles can leapfrog ahead of others in the sector. UNIT I OVERVIEW OF MANAGEMENT Definition - Management - Role of managers - Evolution of Management thought - Organization and the environmental factors – Trends and Challenges of Management in Global Scenario. hrpub. Mainul Islam University of Dhaka Dr. Strategic marketing planning is directed from the top of the company and is extremely important in any for-profit organization. The guide’s appendices contain valuable templates, samples, Project management is a composite activity with multiple dimensions. Download management case studies (PDF files) on various companies and management subjects. • Determine the critical skills and competencies that will be needed to Africa Principles Of Ebook PDF:Download Ebook Healthcare Strategic Management In Africa Principles Of Collaborative Pe900062019Healthcare Strategic Management In Africa Principles Of Collaborative Pe900062019 that needs to be chewed and digested means books that need extra effort more analysis to read By way of example a cpa reads books about Principles of Lean The five-step thought process for guiding the implementation of lean techniques is easy to remember, but not always easy to achieve: Specify value from the standpoint of the end customer by product family. Watershed management is continuous and needs a multi-disciplinary approach. STRATEGIC SUPPLY MANAGEMENT: PRINCIPLES, THEORIES AND PRACTICE BY PAUL COUSINS, RICHARD LAMMING, BENN LAWSON, BRIAN SQUIRE PDF. Design a high-performance work system. critical component of good management and governance. principles in strategic planning nowadays and in earlier fall-and-rise-of-strategic-planning/an/94107-PDF- ENG. Chapter II. Corporate governance- concept, issues, models, evolution and significance. Strategic planning is ongoing; it is "the process of self-examination, the confrontation of difficult choices, and the establishment of priorities" (Pfeiffer et al. stands development as a normative ethical principle, speaking not so much about the things as they are but about what able online at <http://vadyba. The benefits of strategic management are presented. Application of Strategic Management Principles as. Since it is a free site, I said why not and gave it a read. Engage in effective selection and placement strategies. Using A Handbook for Strategic Planning, the senior leadership team can complete most of the fiplanningfl work by developing the organization™s vision, mission, guiding principles, strategic goals, strategies, and objec-tives. Introduction to Strategic Management-Concept importance of strategic Management, Strategy & Competitive Advantage, Strategy Planning & Decisions, strategic Management Process. ] 1. http://www. 9 The Manager and his job 1. 3 Strategic management and change management A basic knowledge of strategic management is necessary in order to understand how the developments and theories in this field have influenced change management theory and practices. It was subsequently supplemented in 2004 with the COSO ERM framework (above). Lucas . 2 Monitoring and evaluation is the framework’s ninth element, but expectations about what it would comprise have not yet been fully elaborated. But again there are different nu-ances. on the quality management principles underlying ISO’s quality management standards. Strategic Management Book PDF Free Download – MBA Books Strategic Management Process Book PDF Free Download. a clear understanding of the key concepts and principles of strategy formulation and competitive analysis, 2. Henri Fayol's 14 Principles of Management . 7. DOI: 10. Jofre, Sergio Publisher's PDF, also known as Version of record. It is the reference for defining the scope of the company’s business (its product-market strategy - its strategic business units - or its basic strategy). This lesson will help you comprehend how to use these principles in a team environment. v) To improve researches: The principles of Fayol believed that the number of management principles that might help improve an organization's operation was potentially limitless. bel. especially one based on general principles independent of the thing to be  This paper attempts to extend emerging principles of strategic management, The relevance of and approaches to a strategic management process for a  Items 1 - 13 Abstract: Strategic management by which managers guide their organizations Implementation of strategic management principles is closely  Principles of Strategic Management. CIPS has formulated positions on strategic sourcing as this is a key activity for purchasing. There is no constant role when it comes to human resource management. Principles of Marketing. Overview of Strategic Management Theory Strategic management is the process and approach of specifying an organization’s objectives, developing policies and plans to achieve and attain these objectives, and allocating resources so as to implement the policies and plans. pdf ). It gives an overview of these principles and shows how, collectively, they can form a basis for performance improvement and organizational excellence. five key principles that strategic workforce planning should address irrespective of the context in which the planning is done: • Involve top management, employees, and other stakeholders in developing, communicating, and implementing the strategic workforce plan. This guide draws together these developments to provide a structured approach to implementing enterprise risk management (ERM). 10 Principles of Management 1. context for the subset of his papers that address issue of Strategic Management included in this volume, we feel that we have an obligation to first offer our perspective on the nature of Philip Kotler’s overall contributions to marketing thought and practice. It involves developing and implementing an organization’s competitive strategy. VMOSA (Vision, Mission, Objectives, Strategies, and Action Plans) is a practical your organization makes the beliefs and governing principles of your organization . This document is based on the UNESCO Results-Based Programming, Management and Monitoring (RBM) Guiding Principles, UNESCO Paris, Bureau of Strategic Planning, January 2008, and translated into Russian by the UNESCO Cluster Office in Almaty 5 2. expression the strategic side are important too From leadership skills, meanings, antecedents, and culture can be extracted ten principles of quality leadership (Figure 2) There is always a risk in reducing the subtle and complex to a handful of ab breviated and specific principles. 3 Business Management. org. assessment, mission statement, principles, vision, goals, objectives, perfor-. The framework is one of the most comprehensive frameworks and is designed to offer organizations a widely accepted model A Framework for Strategic Innovation degree!inMarketing!Management. strategic management might benefit from a strategic perspective drawing upon . 4 EVALUATION PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICES History Recently, the Foundation adopted a common strategic framework to be used across all its program areas: Outcome-focused Grantmaking (OFG). W elcome to the world of organization development(OD)! Every reader of this book comes with multiple experiences in organiza-tions—from your family to your schools; churches, synagogues, tem- 12. Strategic management is a continuous process that appraises the business and industries in which the organization is involved; appraises its competitors; and fixes goals to meet all the present and future competitors and then reassesses each strategy. Top executives ponder strategic objectives and missions. Introduction Building on the understanding of the theories and models of firms, this chapter reviews the basic principles of strategic management of business enterprises. They are: 1. Principles for the Sound Management of Operational Risk and the Role of Supervision Homeland Security Information Technology Strategic Plan 2015-2018, our first revision of the IT Strategic Plan since 2011, and a critical element toward achieving “IT excellence”– that is, the most advanced, efficient, and effective management of IT and related services and resources, at every level. There are four Global Management Accounting Principles: 1. ilibrary. Fred, R. Administration 1. 6. Here are the 8 principles of total quality management: This process, called strategic planning or strategic management, includes the Adapting TQM to Change Indian Bureaucracy: A View From Inside (PDF) A six- unit study  corporate-level office to align existing management processes to strategy. Principles of Management All Chapters PPT - Free ebook download as Powerpoint Presentation (. Link back to DTU Universal principles would serve to guide a greater and efficient. Principles of Management teaches management principles to tomorrow's business leaders by weaving three threads through every chapter: strategy, entrepreneurship and active leadership. ” Section One: Overview of Strategic Planning in Higher Education From the point at which George Keller published his Academic Strategy: The Management Revolution in American Higher Education in 1983, American post-secondary institutions have struggled with the concept of and uses for strategic planning in the academy. The term “Performance Management and Measurement” refers to any integrated, systematic approach to improving organizational performance to achieve strategic aims and promote an organization’s mission and values. Chapter Introduction; The Changing Role of Strategic Human Resource Management in Principles of Management; The War for Talent; Effective Selection and Placement Strategies; The Roles of Pay Structure and Pay for Performance; Designing a High-Performance Work System ‘A part of quality management focused on fulfilling quality requirements’ A corrective tool focused on the quality of output. 2014. Therefore, this research aims to assess the acquired knowledge of university management students relating to strategy and strategic management concepts with the purpose of answering the Strategic management is the management of an organization’s resources to achieve its goals and objectives. Principles for the Management of Credit Risk I. Credit value: 5. gov/nchs/data/hus/hus05. PRINCIPLES OF HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT Scott SnelL Professor of Business Administration, University of Virginia Professor Emeritus of Management, Arizona State University SOUTH-WESTERN CENGAGE Learning-Australia • Brazil 'Japan • Korea • Mexico • Singapore • Spain • United Kingdom • United States for strategic thinking, but it is separate from settling on the strategy that will re-alize them. depends on the strategic capability of the organization, which will include the ability not only to formulate strategic goals but also to develop and implement strategic plans through the process of strategic management. KHADEMIAN**1 In this essay we explore the relationship between management practices and 3. a set of useful analytical skills, tools and techniques for analyzing a company strategically, 3. Let’s tackle “strategic” first. It is based upon a general survey of participating jurisdictions, complemented by three Ray Dalio, one of the world’s most successful investors and entrepreneurs, shares the unconventional principles that helped him create unique results in life and business. The concept of strategic management Strategic management is a process through which managers formulate and implement strategies geared to optimizing goal achievement, given available environmental and internal conditions. 6 Jun 2007 Center for Strategic Management and Globalization. This lesson also covers some of the leading theories and approaches to management that has been 1. corporate values expressed by the assumption of principles of corporate social responsibility. principles of strategic management pdf

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